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Since an atom having no charge, means the number of electrons must be equal to the number of protons that is the atomic number.Hence, in an atom the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons.

Nuclear reactions change the composition of an atom's nucleus, and this process is useful for many applications.As soon as they come to rest, they combine with an electron to form two -ray photons in a matter-antimatter annihilation reaction.-decay are often obtained in an excited state.The excess energy associated with this excited state is released when the nucleus emits a photon in the -ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.While the common perception is that nuclear chemistry involves only the study of radioactive nuclei, advances in modern mass spectrometry instrumentation has made chemical studies using stable, nonradioactive isotopes increasingly important.There are essentially three sources of radioactive elements.Nuclei can also decay by capturing one of the electrons that surround the nucleus.